In recent years, clusters of galaxies have emerged as one of the most powerful and important laboratories for cosmology and astrophysics. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe, making them excellent tracers for the growth of cosmic structures. They are dramatically reshaping our understanding of the physics of galaxy formation and may hold the keys to deciphering the nature of dark energy. In this talk, I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the structure and evolution of galaxy clusters and how we can use these remarkable objects to address fundamental questions in astrophysics and cosmology.